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Foundation Fixes: New Techniques that Allow Foundations to Respond Quickly to Problems


(bell chimes) – [Woman] This is Duke University. – Well welcome all of you to this Foundation Impact
Research Group Seminar. I’m delighted to have you all here. We’re especially pleased
to have Judith Rodin here and her husband, Paul Verkuil. They’ve been here before
and it’s always a pleasure to welcome them back. Judith Rodin is a pioneer,
innovator, change maker. I didn’t write this. – Me neither. – I’m complimenting– (all laughing) I want you know, I adopt
everything that’s in here. Judith Rodin is a pioneer,
innovator, change maker and global thought leader. For over two decades, Rodin lead and transformed two global institutions, The Rockefeller Foundation and the University of Pennsylvania. A groundbreaking executive
throughout her career, Dr. Rodin was the first woman named to lead an Ivy League Institution and was the first woman to serve as The Rockefeller Foundation’s president. A research psychologist by training, she was one of the pioneers
of the Behavioral Medicine and Health Psychology movements. Dr. Rodin’s leadership ushered
The Rockefeller Foundation into a new era of strategic philanthropy that emphasized
partnerships with business, government, and the
philanthropic community to address and solve for
the complex challenges of the 21st century. Rodin championed two whole new fields that are now pervasive,
resilience and impact investing. And I could tell you from my own knowledge of the field that Judy is the one who really put resilience
on the national agenda and language and you
see it everywhere now. Not just with respect to
foundations at universities but with the society and a society in which we can’t begin to anticipate all the problems that are gonna happen and do something to avoid them. It’s good to concentrate on resilience so when it happens, you’ll
know how to bounce back. And so I think I do attribute that, I think accurately, to Judy. And the same thing is probably
true of impact investing. It isn’t as widely known
as resilence as a phrase but nonetheless, it is
certainly grown a great deal as a consequence of her leadership. At Penn, Dr. Rodin presided
over an unprecedented decade of growth and progress that
transformed the institution, its campus, and the community, taking the university from 16th to 4th in the US News and
World Report national rankings. The university also
engineered a comprehensive, internationally acclaimed,
neighborhood revitalization program in West Philadelphia. And indeed, when Judy was running Penn and revitalizing West Philadelphia, I was at the Atlantic Philanthropies and we saw that effort on
the ground, step by step, and amazed by how well it worked and the vision that it embodied. Rodin has served as a member of the board for several leading corporations
and many non-profits. She has authored more
than 250 academic articles and chapters and has written
or co-written 15 books, including her two most recent, The Power of Impact
Investing: Putting Markets to Work for Profit and Global Good and The Resilience Dividend:
Being Strong in a World Where Things Go Wrong. So Judy, it’s a pleasure
to welcome you here, again. Paul, it’s wonderful to
have you here as well. Most of you don’t know the fact that Paul taught at Chapel
Hill in the law school. And he came to the law
school at Chapel Hil about, I think, almost the same time I came to the Duke Law School. And he was my mentor
in administrative law. I’m not sure that was a favor because the administrative law is the kind of law course that changes
from spring semester to the fall semester, like 150 new cases. But in any event, he did
get me started in the field and I did suffer through six years of teaching that course
and then told the dean I don’t wanna teach that course anymore, I want a course that doesn’t
ever change like torts. (all laughing) And I didn’t get torts but I
got out of administrative law. (Paul speaking off mic) (both laughing) In any event, Paul welcome to you and Judy, a special welcome to you. Thank you so much for coming.
– Thank you. (applause) – It’s wonderful to be here
and so thank you so much and thanks to all of you
for being here today. Joel, I know, has a special place in all your hearts and
certainly does in mine. He was a mentor, a
really important mentor, as I entered the labyrinthine
world of philanthropy. Trying to figure out what
it really was all about. And why suddenly after
being a university president where no one listened to you, I had become a foundation president where everyone thought you were smart and clever and charming and wonderful. And Joel told me the truth so. (all laughing) It was a terrific entree and I continued to be able to consult with Joel and ask his advice and always know that I would get very
good and candid feedback. It’s great that Paul is here with me. This area has special
resonance for both of us, certainly to Paul. During his early years at Chapel Hill and then more recently we are the parent of a Duke graduate and
Alex was very active here and vice president of
the student government, Durham police officer. – [Joel] She’s talking literally a Durham police officer.
– Literally. Who carried a weapon. And rode in a police car. – At the same time. And had a unique undergraduate experience, I would say, much to his parents chagrin. But it has a special place and Nan and I were good friends
as presidents together. Richard Broadhead and I
grew up together at Yale. We came the same year. We were department chairs the same year. We were co-deans before I became provost and he came here so all of
these wonderful intercon– And of course Vince Price
was the Penn provost so lots of great connections and so good to see all of you. Joel asked me to talk a bit about what we tried to think through at Rockefeller as I had the privilege of leading that storied institution. All of you know, of course, that it is one of America’s first foundations. We and Carnegie sort of tussle about who’s really first based on incorporation and where. But one of the most interesting things that I saw when I became president was in the Rockefeller archives a series of letters between John D and Andrew Carnegie where
they’re communicating with each other before each of them formed the foundation and really talking about what was this new thing they were conceiving
that was philanthropy. Which they both felt was going to be different than charity. They wanted it to be
different from charity and they were sort of figuring out how. And they went in different directions in terms of the things
that they chose to fund in those early years but both, of course, have had a profound influence on the evolution of philanthropy in America and certainly around the world. Rockefeller was the
fist global foundation. It was giving more foreign aid that the US government
until the Marshall Plan. And so when you think about the impact of those early foundations,
and of course Carnegie was building these amazing libraries and transforming so many institutions, and you think about their impact. So for me, coming into this, my knowledge of grant making was really
writing grant proposals to NIH as a research scientist and there was an awful lot to learn. But the one thing I knew for sure is that when you have a foundation with that kind of history and legacy, you ought to be deeply focused on impact. And you think about the
early years of Rockefeller, I think until the second world war, it really was directly
working, it was what we today would call an operating foundation. It was on the ground, its
scientists were on the ground, its grant officers were on the ground and they were running everything, with huge operations in place as they worked around the world. After the second world war, when the Bretton Woods
institutions were formed, they recognized that they no longer had to sort of stand in for multilateralism, which is what Rockefeller and its leaders felt like they were doing until then, and instead began to understand and Joel has written so beautifully about the importance of
this, that they needed to develop the
non-governmental organizations and so Rockefeller, Ford, and some of the other larger US foundations really began the infrastructure of so many of the civil
society organizations that we know today, and
really built their capacity and built them to be another rail, not to stand in for government, often to criticize government. Not to stand in for the private sector, often there too, to criticize the actions of the private sector. But be that civil society that was both the infrastructure and
in some ways the conscience of the second half of the 20th century. Now fast forward, I’m coming in almost at the beginning
of the 21st century and so the question
that we asked ourselves and we had, and have, an amazing mission, so our mission is for the
betterment of humankind, because John D felt that every generation would interpret that in a different way based on the issues and the problems that the leaders saw
in their current moment or their current generation
and wanted really to create the flexibility to do that which was extremely prescient, I think. So with that background,
I had the opportunity to ask two questions. What could we do to double our impact? Let’s not go and get baseline measures. Let’s not ask ourselves how much impact we’re having now which is kind of a threatening question,
but let’s just ask ourselves if we wanted to free our
minds and double our impact, what would we do? So the impact question, and
then the second question was if we have the right and the ability from our mission statement
to really lean in to the problems and the
issues of our generation what are they and how can
we really figure them out? And so we spent my first year or two really addressing
both of those things. For the first, it was a real focus on impact and innovation. And to answer the
second, it was consulting with experts all over the world about the ways that
the world was changing, the problems, and the opportunities, and how we as a foundation
could lean in to that. As a result of those two explorations, we came to a structure and the reason that I just wanna talk about the structure for a moment is that
you will then, I think, understand why we did what we did and chose the topics that we did. So our structure was to
focus on what we came to call internally the
Three Is for Impact, which were innovation,
intervention, and influence. And we concluded that
all three were critical, that they supported one another, but that they were not the same, and so we could vertically influence, I mean vertically work on them, but we could also look
at their intersections to create some out-sized
impact, we believed. The focus on innovation, I think, was very critical for our thinking. Obviously we learned
from and consulted with huge varieties of experts on innovation, both in the public and the private sector, and in the academy. And we came to understand
that there were multiple types of innovation that when
the general public thinks about innovation you’re thinking about that shiny new
product, the iMac, the mouse. And product innovation
is, of course, critical. But for our kind of work,
perhaps the other kinds of innovation were
equally or more important and they are process innovation, organizational innovation,
and markets innovation. And we leaned heavily into all three and I’m going to come back to that. In our work in innovation, we really emphasized risk taking. We all know working as
we do that in some ways philanthropic capital is
America’s risk capital. It is tax advantaged
money and if we treat that too conservatively, we’re
not really using the capital with taking sufficient risk
to really push the envelope of new ways of thinking,
new ways of acting, that philanthropy and our
resources enable us to do. And so we spent a lot of time thinking about and talking about and
then putting into action the concept of failing safely, which often is talked about but often not supported
organizationally sufficiently and we worked hard at that. Another part of innovation
that we focused on was opening ourselves to new ideas and new ways of thinking. And so we began a process, and it fed over into our intervention space as well, that we called scan and search. We funded think tanks, universities, some NGOs, on the ground in various parts, all over the world, actually, and they were our eyes
and ears on the ground, our sensing mechanisms, for
how things were changing and new things were evolving. What we were looking for through the scan and search process was
dynamism in a space. We all know what the big problems are. What we wanted to focus on
with our limited resources were where was something looking like the terrain was shifting, there was some dynamism, a new discovery, a new government, a
new kind of partnership and the like, where suddenly something that may have seemed intractable suddenly felt like the ground was shifting and the dynamism might allow new ways of acting and new ways of thinking and through scan and search we had real real-time information and it wasn’t coming from
the McKinsey Global Trends or whatever, it was coming from the kinds of thinkers and organizations that all of us feel more compatible with and that we feel we can
learn more effectively from. So that whole mechanism, we
crowdsourced quite a bit, we ran several global competitions, we ran innovation competitions, we ran entrepreneurship competitions, any way that we could get our arms around what was happening out there. And our mantra was all the great ideas don’t come from 425th Avenue. And that helped us sort of
turn ourselves around more and open ourselves, I think,
more effectively to new ideas. The third innovation for us
which made a huge difference in our work was we experimented with how to leverage and unlock different forms of capital than just our philanthropic dollars. We were obviously– And here
the motivation was dual, we were a four and a half
billion dollar foundation which meant about 200 million a year, which in this era is
actually very little money, and so we asked ourselves,
not only should we partner with other foundations and philanthropies but we all know that all of the philanthropic capital together is only a microcosm of
solving the world’s problems. When Patty Stonesifer was the CEO of Gates and everybody was saying, oh,
you’re giving so much money, you’ll change the world,
she would remind people that their entire annual giving budget was less than the public school budget of the state of California. So just to put numbers into perspective. So we are a relatively small actor in terms of resources and so we looked at what was sitting on
the sidelines so far and that was private investment capital. Not corporations, but
the private investors where there were trillions
of dollars under investment and so began the thinking
around developing the double bottom line
investment strategy, where we really could– And this came both from the recognition of the resources but also the global trends. You could start to see the
Millennials were different. Many of them were going to inherit huge amounts of family wealth. And they didn’t want to
just get financial returns. They were socially active young people and they were really part of the momentum of thinking that you
could shift an industry towards thinking about
double bottom line returns where you would get
financial as well as social and environmental returns. And we made a decision at the time that rather than invest our money in an impact investing funds, we would invest our grant making in building the
infrastructure for the field. So all the metrics, what I always called with my team the plumbing, the things that others aren’t going to
invest in, the platforms. So the global impact investors’ network. New policy frameworks that were necessary. The B Corps, so we were
the first funder of B labs and the whole idea of B Corp. And then the entire industry
around social impact bonds was originally funded by Rockefeller work. And that notion of leverage, which at first was just
financial capital leverage, came to be part of our internal narrative about what we wanted to
accomplish generally. So we would say to each
other when we were looking at our grant opportunities,
if we spend a dollar to get a dollar’s worth
of impact, shame on us. We need to get leverage
for every dollar we spend. So sometimes it’s
bringing in other capital, but other times it’s getting more bangs for a single buck and how can we think about that in designing our grant making, in our thinking, and again I’ll come back to that when I talk about resilience. So that was sort of
our innovation pathway. Our intervention pathway
is the more traditional, standard, grant making. You see a problem, you design a set of solutions, you intervene
with your partners and your grantees to improve the lives and livelihoods of
beneficiaries on the ground. Because we had this
scanning process as part of our openness to new
ideas, it was really easy to start thinking about how
to begin an intervention. So we worked with the
scans, we actually had about 40 every quarter, we picked five or six that we then put into the process that we called search, which was to spend about six months really searching to see if there’s an intervention set of new ideas, set of
grantees, set of ways, that we think, around this place where there’s dynamism,
we could really begin to think about putting together an intervention strategy
to have high impact. Many things that went into search never got moved further. That caused a little kerfuffle with some of our grantees,
and I think accurately, and we could’ve and should’ve
communicated better, about what phase that
grant making meant for us, but there were many things
that we didn’t continue because we didn’t see a space. But it was a quick and six month process. The things that we moved out we put into development where we worked with them further and then, and only then, did we put something into the
intervention, the final stage. Luckily, that was the
point, obviously with all of their input before that,
but that was the point where the board formally
voted yes or no on our work. So they did not approve individual grants and we did a lot of discussion with them and reiteration in the development phase but their approval process only occurred when we were taking it into
the final intervention phase and then they would approve a multi-year envelope of dollars. So that was the intervention. For us in that final phase the mantra was implement, measure, redesign, but we were in this
together with our grantees so we said, ya know the measurement is not your report
card, the measurement is for us to all figure out together what’s working and what isn’t so we can continue to
evolve and make changes, and that was a mindset for some of our grantees and even for some of our program officers and I think has served us well over time. And then the final I, influence, is something that I think was and maybe still is more
controversial in philanthropy. And that is we came to feel that influence was more than having a good
communications strategy. That influence was really the multiplier of the good work you were funding and that it didn’t only have to come through the mouths of your grantees, that you, the donors,
could also be out there as a multiplier, particularly
because we were linking our grantees into those
intervention strategies and so how do we have communications, influence policy through leadership, and how do we share learning? All of those an important
element, I think, of influence, and I believe
that not enough philanthropies, foundations, even today, use
that final tool sufficiently or sufficiently effectively. And so that was quite important for us. I said that I would come back to the other kinds of innovation because I do think it’s critical and I think for the kind of work we do we often don’t spend enough time thinking about organizational innovation or process innovation, so we actually reorganized ourselves as a result of what we saw in that
early set of explorations. The world was globalizing, the pace of change was enormously more rapid than anything our predecessors had known, technology was transforming everything, and so the question is, are we organized as a foundation in a way that allows us to adapt to this new reality and continue to be as effective? And we concluded, at least for us, that problems aren’t landing anymore on the ground in convenient packages labeled by Rockefeller program areas. (Joel chuckles) And so we chose to reorganize. We broke down all the program areas. We reorganized ourselves
over and over again depending on the initiatives
that we were working on. So a lot of shifting
teams, a lot of short-term, part-time, outside experts
who came in to a team for a particular initiative and then left, and it was a very, very
different structure and for philanthropy in general was thought of as an
organizational innovation. Again, not without its ups
and downs, lotsa downs, but it served us well in terms of the kind of intervention impact that we wanted to have. The process innovations, I think, were equally critical. So how do we do things differently. I talked about a different
approach to risk taking, a different approach
to trying to be nimble, so we went from a foundation where the board approved every grant which couldn’t allow us
to be nimble and respond, every grant over $100,000, to one where the approval process and therefore our ability to move quickly was very transformational
for how we would work, who would come to us, often we were called because somebody would say, I know you guys can act quickly and this is really important,
it’s not gonna wait ’til your next grant cycle or whatever, and it enabled us to be
seen, at least in the areas in which we were working,
more as a go to partner, but also we got better at being speedy which is … Not only to our grantees, but in the way we thought, in the way we responded to our own work, in how quickly, when we looked at metrics, we were really able to
readjust and redirect, and for us, that was a
real process innovation and there are others and I think critical for leadership to think about process and organizational innovations in their own work and in the
organizations that they lead. The markets innovations I’ve talked about and it really was around
innovative finance, not only in the impact investing field where we got in very early partners and believers, so JP
Morgan and Morgan Stanley early created private
wealth fund opportunities for some of their clients to invest in impact investing, social impact bonds, obviously a market innovation, but in the later period, we kept pushing the notion of innovative finance, so we’ve done a lot of
work with the insurance and reinsurance industries on how to do things differently
or more creatively. And also with the bilateral
development donors, and so I’ll give you one market innovation that sort of brings them together and you’ll get the flavor of a lot of the things that we were trying, some of which worked, and some didn’t, and we were always piloting rigorously and vigorously before
we brought it to scale. Through our resilience work,
it was very clear to us that around the world a lot of the money in the world’s most vulnerable
places that was being spent by the bilateral development agencies, USAID, DIFFID, NORAD, the
Canadians and the like, was wiped out by the next disaster and in fact when they
looked at their numbers, and this is the actual number for USAID, when USAID started, they were spending 80% of their resources on development and 20% on recovery and five years ago it was exactly the inverse. So very little could go to development ’cause they were just spending
so much aid on recovery. We had been working with the re-insurers through our resilience
work and they kept saying to us, the governments and philanthropies are not taking advantage of
what our business model is, which is we insure risk, and
we have phenomenal algorithms that allow us to create these metrics and figure these things out. Up to this point, we were working with them on microinsurance
for farmers in Africa, which by the way was terrific, but we had gotten to know and
trust each other very well. Fast forward, the innovation
that we worked out, which is beyond my imagination
in what’s going on now, is we looked at the catastrophe bonds that they had created,
Mexico was the first country in this hemisphere that bought cat bonds, and obviously they’re extremely expensive, so a lot of the countries
in the developing world and certainly in sub-Sahara and Africa where we had been working so intensively, didn’t have the capacity to do it. We then said to Swiss
Re, we will find buyers for the cat bonds, we don’t want you to reduce the price, we
want to create these markets which have to exist if this is going to be a sustainable intervention. So they maintained the price level, we then went to the bilateral donors who were active in a particular country, and we showed them what they were spending on recovery over the prior five years as these countries kept getting wiped out, monsoon, typhoon, earthquake, tsunami, we know the parts of the
world, even droughts, and they bought the cat
bonds for the country and then when a disaster happened, Swiss Re paid out instead
of them paying out. It cost them somewhere
between 1/10 and 1/20 to buy the catastrophe bond of what they had been spending on recovery so they now are freeing these resources back into development and hopefully with our assistance,
building more resiliently when they invest in development, both hard infrastructure as well as social and economic infrastructure, thinking about resilience principles when they develop that strategy. These kinds of market innovations create such capacity
for us as philanthropies to transform the way
things are being done, the way people think
about their partnerships, and the way we can
really serve our mission, which is our beneficiaries on the ground. And so for us, and for me in particular, this has been certainly one of the most exciting innovations. It was really through
our work in resilience that we came to think about this. Resilience came about, I’m a psychologist, and actually did some early research on stress and coping as Kelly knows, we were colleagues, but we
didn’t call it resilience then, but really the capacity to, at that point of individuals, who is
able to rebound effectively if something bad happens and who isn’t, and what are the differences. Rockefeller was extremely active in New Orleans post-Katrina. We were called in and asked by the Louisiana Recovery
Authority to intervene and help bring the city
to a planning process that would enable them to have a plan that qualified for the
federal funds, ultimately, and so watching the rebuild of New Orleans and recognizing that all
of the structural failures were much more than wind and water, they were social failures of long making. They were economic
failures of long standing. They were weakened communities in ways that when something bad happened like the flood and the storm, then it was not surprising. We continued that work in Asia, where we saw the fastest
growth of cities occurring and urbanization, and we worked in 50 what are called second tier cities, smaller cities but not
small by our standards, but small for Asian standards, that the prognostication was that they would have a huge demographic growth over the next 10 or 20 years. And so we created the Asian Cities Climate Change Resilience Network, worked with the Asian Development Bank and the World Bank and really began to understand what building
resilience is on the ground. The critical thing that I want to say here is that this was a huge transformation for the the Rockefeller Foundation because when we started
what made John D’s insight so incredible was that he said we’re going to focus on the root causes of problems, we are not going to put bandages on weeping wounds, which was his language about trying to solve problems after they occurred and fix them but try to
get to the root cause. Fast forward 100 years, as a result of that early process
that I described to you, we really came to believe
that in the 21st century, you may not be able to
get to the root cause of every problem, that things
are happening too quickly, that crisis may be the new normal, and so how do we, in a 21st century model, build the capacity to prepare for and prevent what you can, but be able to rebound more quickly
and more effectively for that which you can’t
predict or prepare for? And then finally, and importantly, if something happens,
how do you transform? How do you use it as a growth
and change opportunity? The narrative on the ground is often, we just want things to get back to normal, but normal often has all
the vulnerabilities built in that made you a higher risk entity in one way or another in the first place. So the third piece of resilience and the insight for us was transformation, not just back to normal. And that began a huge amount of work. We learned a lot in the Asian
Cities Resilience Network. We had an in vivo
opportunity to really act after Super Storm Sandy in New York, where I was privileged to chair the recovery commission for the governor, and so I worked very closely both with the federal agencies
and also with the city. And we created a mandate
for New York’s recovery that really was a
blueprint for resilience, in energy, in our financing,
in our building codes, in our land use codes, that
really is evolving still and is transforming the city. Resilience, this will give you the graphic and then you’ll understand why we think it’s so important, so when we looked at several of the
businesses after Sandy hit, they all had their
generators in the basement because 9/11 was the prior catastrophe and so you knew you were gonna get hit from the top, right? So you put all your
generators in the basement. And so we kept saying, if resilience is about the capacity
to withstand anything, not the thing that’s in
the rear view mirror alone, and that changes the way you intervene, it changes the things you focus on, and itself leads to very different kinds of work and thinking. We worked with the federal government. We were responsible for
several billion dollars of federal recovery dollars, not only that which was spent in the
greater New York region but around the country in a process that Sean Donovan, who
was then secretary of HUD, lead for the president,
called Rebuild by Design. And here’s a great
place where philanthropy can be terrific. Sean had two billion dollars for housing, small business, a variety of things, for the New York region,
and what we wanted to do, and we were influenced
by one another’s work, was run a global
competition where architects and engineers, experts, would work with the local communities
so that the rebuild process had what the communities felt they needed, not just what the experts
thought they needed, so that you could begin to
get more bang for the buck. So if you’re building a new bridge anyway or you’re building a flood wall or you’re whatever, can
you get more out of it? So we thought a global competition that brought global experts
and allowed this money to be juried and dispensed. So Sean had two billion dollars but he didn’t have four million dollars to run the competition. Because that wasn’t in the budget. So he called and said, can you guys put in the four million dollars to run the competition and then we can free the two billion in federal dollars. That began, for us, a way of thinking about not only how to
leverage private capital but how to leverage government
capital differently. How to use our grant money
not to replace federal dollars but to capacitate federal dollars. And that came out of the
resilience work that we did and we’ve brought that to
cities all over the world and to countries all over the world. And the initiative that was the capstone of that was our centennial initiative called 100 Resilient Cities, where we ran a global
competition in three cohorts. What’s stunning about that is that we had 1100 applicants from 47 countries and this was not just
municipal governments, the requirement was that the application had to come jointly
from the private sector, the NGO community, the
university community, and municipal government, and that lead to a lot of what opened in terms of everybody’s way of thinking. 100 Resilient Cities has just completed the work on the third cohort, so now a lot of the projects will be undertaken, and they are quite compelling because they are obviously about natural and built infrastructure,
but they are equally about social and economic infrastructure. And so Paris, that thought it was going to be working on the
flooding of the Seine, is now, as their first
project out of the box after their strategy
work, going to tear down the worst of their public schools in the worst of their immigrant slums and rebuild them as
optimistic, open window, green space, learning centers. And the Mayor, Anne Hidalgo,
is speaking all over the world about her transformation in thinking about building a resilient city. So, for us this has been amazing. It’s the one Rockefeller thing my predecessor asked to stay involved in, my successor, I’m sorry,
asked to stay involved in, and I do so with great pleasure. So maybe I’ll stop. – Absolutely wonderful. (applause) Well, I can’t let this end without saying what a remarkable presentation that was. It was absolutely fascinating. I learned things that I didn’t know, many things I didn’t know, and I’m dazzled by what you did there. And it will continue to benefit not just the foundation structure but also the rest of society. So, thank you very much (mumbles) – Thank you all, thank you for coming. (applause) – It was really fascinating. Dazzling.

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